Life Cycle Emissions of Natural Gas Transported via TurkStream

To manage the effects of emissions to air, water and soil, it is essential to use climate-friendly and less polluting energy sources for electricity and heating. Gas and renewable energy sources, like wind and solar, are indispensable energy sources for the transformation of the energy sector. Natural gas represents a short and medium-term solution: as the cleanest hydrocarbon-based energy source, it can be stored in large quantities and provides the flexibility necessary for the increased use of renewable energy sources. In the long term, natural gas could be substituted by low-carbon gaseous fuels, like biofuels, hydrogen and synthetic methane, using the same infrastructure.

For this reason, South Stream Transport B.V., responsible for the construction and operation of the offshore section of the TurkStream pipeline, commissioned thinkstep, which Sphera acquired in September 2019, to perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the supply of natural gas from Russia to South East Europe and Turkey via the new TurkStream pipeline, and the use of the natural gas for electricity and residential heat generation in South East Europe (Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary and Serbia) and Turkey. Sphera compared the LCA results of the natural gas supply via the TurkStream pipeline to South East Europe and Turkey with alternative natural gas supply chains. In addition, Sphera compared the LCA results of the natural gas use for electricity and residential heat generation in Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Serbia and Turkey with those for electricity and residential heat generation from alternative energy sources. Moreover, Sphera provided an informative and prospective outlook until 2030 and beyond, analyzing the implementation of technological improvements along the life cycle of natural gas as well as the introduction of new technologies, like adiabatic methane conversion and methane pyrolysis.

The study was conducted in accordance with ISO 14040/14044 and was critically reviewed in accordance with ISO/TS 14071 by an independent review panel.

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